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Ideally a sustainable open mobility ecosystem has emerged within a national context that has established a policy framework for mobility transformations.

This accelerates implementation at the local level and is conducive to spatial scalability or replication of mobility solutions that are successful in a given city or region. The overall framework could include regulatory, economic and information based policy mechanisms. In addition, the effective implementation of these policy mechanisms likely requires governance reforms such as simplifying government processes, devolving powers to local governments, reconsideration of transport funding and skills development within government departments.

A recent study by LSE Cities and the Coalition for Urban Transitions into national transport policy and strategy interventions identified priorities national governments should have. These include infrastructure budget allocation, integrated transport and urban planning policy, road pricing and metropolitan level governance for transport. [1] To facilitate mobility transformations for sustainability and to encourage innovation in the mobility sector Finland adopted national legislation in July 2018 that steers the direction for the digitisation of the transport sector in Finland. [2] The Transport Code mandates open data from transport providers, requires open APIs for information on timetables, routes, ticket prices and real time location data. This legislation underpinned the world‘s first MaaS service trials in Helsinki.

Best practice: 

[1] Rode, P., Heeckt, C., da Cruz, N.F. 2019. National Transport Policy and Cities: Key policy interventions to drive compact and connected urban growth.Coalition for Urban Transitions. London and Washington, DC. Available at:

[2] Finland Ministry of Transport and Communications. Transport Code Fact Sheet.