The ratification of the Paris Agreement in 2016 marked a global commitment to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to limit global average temperature under 2°C. Lack of progress being made to achieve this goal has seen growing public dissatisfaction and protests around the world, most notably the Fridays for Future and Global Climate strikes. To avoid catastrophic climate change transformations across sectors are needed, particularly in energy supply, transportation and industrial processes for raw materials production. Implementation of transformations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activities are changing from being optional to essential due to government regulation or to ensure market competitiveness. Zero and low carbon products and services, and in the case of cities sustainable and livable built environments, will be essential for success.
Local mobility ecosystems are also being shaped by these changes underway. Transport accounts for approximately 25% of global emissions and to address this an increasing number of city governments are introducing congestion charging, banning diesel engine vehicles as well as creating car-free areas or schedules.[1,2] These changes seek to elevate sustainable mobility modes to become the preference for city dwellers over private vehicles and to maximise the efficiency of urban freight logistics. Zero and low carbon options sought after include walking, public transport, car sharing, carpooling and cycling. The mix of these will vary according to each spatial context and will include strategies for land use planning, transport infrastructure as well as joint working with a range of service providers.